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Table of contents

A second fragment analysed by the same author was discovered in Salzburg University Library, containing commentaries on the books of Ecclesiastes, Esther, and Chronicles.

While most of these commentaries are known to us from other and complete manuscripts, the commentary on Ecclesiastes was previously unknown. In the holdings of this outstanding institution are books of the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries containing Hebrew binding fragments. The article not only describes the discoveries in the books, among them fragments from the Talmud Yerushalmi and the Talmud Bavli, but also gives background information on how Hebrew manuscripts found their way into such a great number of books. Perani discusses the reasons why so many Jewish manuscripts were collected by Christian bookbinders, and he also reconstructs the history of that particular collection as well as the influence of the spread of printing and the collapse of the market for books in that region.

In an additional chapter he describes the establishment of the new inquisition in Modena in the sixteenth century and the anti-Jewish sanctions imposed by the Church. Censorship and the survival of Hebrew manuscripts as reused but erased bifolios 26 andreas lehnardt are intimately linked in Modena. His study is therefore interested not only in the provenance of the fragments but also in their contents. Nevertheless, his new description of the fragments corrects some minor errors in earlier attempts to catalogue the fragments. He also provides interesting insights into the history of the volumes where the fragments were found.

Then he analyses the texts and addresses interesting philological questions, thereby editing several parts of the texts in comparison with already known versions. In an appendix he edits for the first time the commentary to the Azhara reshit according to Ms. Alessandria L. A similarly important textual contribution is provided by Michael Krupp. He presents an edition of a piece from his invaluable private collection of Yemenite binding fragments: an eleventh-century fragment of Midrash Sifre Devarim.

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The existence of Hebrew binding fragments from notarial wrappers in the Yemen has long been neglected. Obviously, the reuse of parchment is not a phenomenon unique to Europe. Jewish books, it seems, have also been recycled for different reasons on the Arabian Peninsula. In comparison with other extant complete manuscripts of Sifre, the Krupp fragment is remarkably old. Its textual tradition is very close to some Genizah fragments found in Fustat Old Cairo. The text contains expressions typical of old manuscripts of Tannaitic writings. The discovery of this fragment, mentioned by Krupp in informal talks at the Mainz conference, is of prime importance for further research in early rabbinic literature.

The final contributions of the volume are dedicated to national projects. Josef Oesch outlines the history of Hebrew fragment research in Austria. The author draws attention to several important issues regarding the cataloguing and publishing of the findings. The highly sophisticated Austrian project is in many ways an ideal model for many similar projects in Europe.

It will surely inspire the ongoing methodological debate on European fragment research. In this country nearly fragments—a remarkable number—have already been discovered. Most of the fragments are Ashkenazic in origin, but some Italian and even Spanish manuscript remains were also found in the bookbindings. In his article the author also provides some details on the statistical distribution of texts and their provenance and discusses the oldest fragments and their reuse as binding material in monasteries.

The Bibliography was arranged by the editor with the help of numerous scholars. The task of compiling a bibliography like this is still very difficult. It is hoped that this bibliography will contribute to a wider awareness of Hebrew manuscript fragments, especially those found in the bindings of books or in archival files.

Inevitably there are lacunae in the list. Several articles on fragments and manuscript discoveries in Europe have been published in small and sometimes non-scholarly reviews and journals.

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These titles were not known or available to the editor. With the kind help of my colleagues I managed to find some of the less well-known publications. First of all I am grateful to the Gerda Henkel Foundation, an institution dedicated to fostering outstanding research in the humanities, for making the initial conference for the project possible. The Friends of the University of Mainz kindly sponsored the conference.

Most of the articles in the volume were edited by Sue L. Oren, who did an excellent job on the language. Jennifer Pavelko, assistant editor at Brill, answered numerous questions concerning the volume. I also want to thank my staff, who helped to organise this successful event. Herbert Reyer, was happy to announce the discovery of around 80 Hebrew parchment fragments.

A few years later the task of investigating this discovery was entrusted to the author. First, I will present the fragments found in Hildesheim. The Discoveries Altogether there are 84 fragments. One fragment is part of a Bible codex. Some of the prayers were said in only a few communities in Germany.

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The present state of the manuscripts is as follows: Only two of the fragments have been left in their original state. The rest was cut in the middle of the page and this is how they have been preserved until today. The text is written in one column and there are between 15 and 30 lines, depending on the design of the page and the size of the script. One of the first tasks to be done was to find the matching half of every page.

It was possible to assemble the pages on the basis of their content or of other features, such as an acrostic, a refrain, or graphical hints e. In the end it was not only possible to find the match, but sometimes I could even reconstruct several consecutive pages. The most beautiful ones are painted in gold. These are much simpler than the beautiful paintings found in the well-known splendidly decorated Ashkenazic prayer But see the article by E. Hollender in this volume. Davidson, Thesaurus of Medieval Hebrew Poetry, 4 vols.

These facts suggest that it was used in the local synagogue. The hunted animal is a red deer. One can also discern another animal perhaps a dog?


It tells about the preparation of the Yom Kippur service in the temple. Does it support the theory that hunting scenes in manuscript illuminations refer to the Christian-Jewish confrontation? The hunter could be identified with the Christian pursuer. He is collaborating with the little dog-demon who represents the devil. Bestand 58, no.

It is not listed in I. Biale New York: Schocken, , — Zunz, Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie Berlin: L. Gerschel, , reprint, Hildesheim: Olms, , , no. The fact that the same motif is used in many liturgical manuscripts as decoration for various Piyyutim demonstrates that the motifs were part of a collection used again and again by manuscript illuminators, without any connection to the text.

Final conclusions will have to be determined with the help of art historians.

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Dating the Fragments Usually it is very difficult to date fragments that do not have a colophon. Paradoxically, the recycling of the manuscript enables us to establish such a date.

After that the dates of the bills and the names of the current city treasurer were noted on the cover. The script is very clearly and carefully written in an Ashkenazic book hand. But this is only a guess that has to be verified by paleographers. If the fragments are still bound in the binding and one can date the binding, it is also possible to fix a terminus ante quem. However, if the fragments are detached from the binding and there is no documentation about the codex in which they were incorporated, research becomes speculation.

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One is left with no possibility for reconstructing the history and the date of these fragments, except for palaeographical hints. Moreover, since parchment could have been sold from one city to another, it is often impossible to define the provenance of the reused Hebrew manuscript. Therefore, the Hildesheim fragments represent the exception to the rule. The Historical Background Let me introduce to you some facts concerning the history of the city of Hildesheim and its Jewish community.

According to legend, Hildesheim was founded in the ninth century, when Ludwig the Pious rested on a local hill after hunting a white deer. He hung his cross in a rosebush and prayed. When he woke up, everything was covered with snow except for the rosebush. Instead, it was blossoming. Therefore Ludwig decided to build a chapel dedicated to St.